Monday, September 30, 2019

Eating onion reduces the risk of breast cancer

Vip technique

Eating onion reduces the risk of breast cancer

Increasing Breast Cancer Outbreak: According to the study, one in eight women in the US and UK are at risk of breast cancer in their lives. Men can also get this disease. According to the report published in the journal Nutrition and Cancer, in the 1960s there were 18 cases of the disease per 100,000 women. But as the outbreak of the disease increased, in the 1990s, 50 cases of the disease were seen per 100,000. 


Research has shown that eating raw onion and garlic every day can reduce the risk of breast cancer for women.
     Scientists analyzed the eating habits of more than 600 women in Turkic Rikans, where the disease has increased rapidly in the last few decades. In it, they found that women who eat chutney made of onion and garlic more than once per day are 67% less likely to get breast cancer.

A great recipe to reduce the risk of breast cancer

Eating raw onion and garlic can be important. It can also be a recipe to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The study was conducted by Buffalo University and Puerto Rico University. This is the first study to reveal the relationship between onion and garlic intake and breast cancer, the researchers said. The study's lead author, Gauri Desai, said, "In the study, we found that in Puerto Rico women, simultaneous intake of onion and garlic was related to lower risk of breast cancer." He further added, the study found that women who consumed onion-garlic sauce more than once per day had a 67% lower risk of breast cancer than women who did not consume this sauce.

Eat plenty of raw onion-garlic 

Scientific evidence from previous studies has shown that onion and garlic mines can reduce breast cancer. Desai said that the women of Puerto Rico consume a lot of onion and garlic in the form of chutney. However, not only with chutney but also by consuming raw onion and garlic, the risk of breast cancer is reduced.
        Scientists have found that consuming onion and garlic in different forms do not have the same benefits. Chutney is made differently. But usually, it includes raw onion and garlic along with tomatoes, chilies, and coriander, so it gives some percentage benefit.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Success in the treatment of HIV

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Success in the treatment of HIV

40 million people were HIV positive worldwide in 2017  
More than 1.8 million people infected: According to a Reuters report, the virus has spread to more than 77 million people since the AIDS epidemic began in the 1980s. In 2017, approximately 40 million people worldwide were HIV positive. Global health experts say that the number of people dying from the virus is decreasing every year and the number of people taking antiretrovirus treatment is increasing. But still the number of people infected with HIV is still more than 1.8 million per year.


Scientists have a major breakthrough in the treatment of HIV considered an incurable disease. Scientists have discovered a 'kill switch', which will completely eliminate the reproduction of virus-infected cells that cause AIDS (ADS).
            This molecular switch can be controlled to destroy viruses lying dormant in cells. Scientists from all over the world were in search of it for decades. After this discovery, people living with HIV can now take medicines to eliminate the virus, but these are not treatments. Scientists at the University of California have made this discovery.

Experimentation done on human cells

In a laboratory test on human cells, scientists found that dormant HIV cells can be destroyed by controlling a particular molecule. The team of scientists says that he had been trying to find this switch for the last three decades. Scientists believe that the success achieved in the study will help to eliminate AIDS from the root.

Currently, therapy and medicine are the only support

currently, patients suffering from HIV take medicines for life. Antiretroviral therapy is used to suppress the virus, but treatment is yet to be found. After the therapy is stopped, the virus becomes infected again. Increases by leaps and bounds and increases the risk of infecting others or getting AIDS. According to the data, an estimated 36.9 million people worldwide are infected with HIV.

A ray of hope 

Dr. Tariq Rana, the lead researcher, says that this is an important switch in the discovery of HIV fields for the last three decades. The most interesting part of this discovery is that it has never happened before. Through this discovery, we now have a potential therapeutic target for the eradication of HIV and AIDS. Of course, there is a need to study more in one direction which is held by scientists.

Friday, September 27, 2019


Vip technique


A computer is made using many devices and is used by those devices. They are divided into 2 parts -

1. Input Device
2. Output Device 

1. Input Devices   

The device through which data and information are interchanged in a computer is called the Input Device. Such as - Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Microphone, Joystick, Trackball, WebCam, Light Pen, etc. 
  • Mouse- This is also called Pointing Device. The mouse is both mechanical and optical. The Mechanical Mouse consists of a Ball and two Buttons. Laser Light is used in Optical Mouse and consists of three Buttons. Left Button is called Primary and Right Button is called Secondary Button and Scroll Button is used to scroll the page up and down. It does Left Click, Right Click, Double Click, Drag & Drop and Scrolling. The setting of all buttons of the mouse can be changed.
  • Keyboard- It is an input device that works in Simplex Mode. The size, shape, and Key of the keyboard are not fixed. There are many types of Keys on the keyboard. Like- Alphabet key, Number key, Cursor control key, Function key, Special purpose key, etc. There are three Lock Keys on the keyboard. Like- Caps Lock, Number Lock, Scroll Lock.
  • Joystick- It is a pointing device. It has a stick on the top and a ball on the lower part. It is used to play games on the computer.
  • Trackball- It is also a Pointing Device by which Cursor Control is done on the monitor.
  • Scanner- It is an Input Device through which text and image etc. are scanned from paper and input in digital format. Such as OMR, MICR, BCR, OCR.
  • Light pen- It is a pointing device that is used to draw pictures etc. on a monitor.
  • WebCam- It is a camera that is used for video conferencing which focuses on the person sitting in front and scans the picture.

2. Output Device

   The device of a computer system that sends data and information to Soft Copy (Monitor) and Hard Copy (Printer) is called Output Device. Such as - Monitor, Printer, Plotter, Speech, Synthesizer, Headphone, Projector, etc.
  • Monitor- It is a TV-like screen that displays the soft output. The size of the monitor is measured diagonally. There are 3 types-
  1. CRT- Its full name is Cathode Ray Tube which is the size of a TV. It is also called VDU (Visual Display Unit). It is both art and white (monochrome monitor) and colored.
  2. LCD- Its full name is Liquid Crystal Display. It is small in size and light weighted. TFT (Thin Flim Transistor) technology is used to improve its image quality. It takes less power than CRT but is expensive.
  3. LED- Its full name is Light Emitting Diode. It is a Newer Technology which has Picture Same Display from any Angle. It takes less power than CRT and LCD, but it gets expensive.
  • Plotter- It is an output device that is used to print posters and banners etc. in a wide format.
  • projector- It is used to display information or presentation on a large screen in a public place.
  • Printer- It is an output device that produces a hard copy. There are two types of printers based on printing technology-
  1. Impact Printer 
  2. Non-Impact Printer 
  • Impact Printer- This leaves Impact on the paper for printing. Electro-mechanical technics are used in this. Hammer or pin and inked ribbon are used in it. To write the text on the paper, Hammer strikes a Inked Ribbon, which results in the text. Dot-matrix, line printers and daisy wheel printers are examples of impact printers.
  • Non-Impact Printer- Inked Ribbon and hammer are not used. Laser, thermal etc. technology is used for printing in it. Laser, ink-jet, thermal printers are examples of non-impact printers. 

Note- Printer speed is measured in three ways-
  1. Speed of Character Printer is measured in CPS (Character Per Second).
  2. The speed of the Line Printer is measured in LPM (Line Per Minute).
  3. The speed of Page Printer is measured in PPM (Page Per Minute).

Difference between Impact and Non-Impact Printer-

  • Impact Printer is very much a noise generation during printing whereas the Non-Impact Printer does not generate noise.
  • Impact Printer does Slow Printing whereas Non-Impact Printer does Fast Printing.
  • The printing quality of the Impact Printer is not good while the printing quality of the Non-Impact Printer is good.
  • Impact Printer is cheaper than the Non-Impact Printer.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Blood tests can detect fatal diseases

Vip technique
The blood test will tell about heart disease

Blood tests can detect fatal diseases.

Note: It will be known before 40 years whether there will be heart disease or not.

          A study was done on 01 lakh people

The inflammation indicates sickness

The inflammation indicates several diseases, including cancer and heart disease. In the course of this research, we found that the diagnosis of inflammation in adolescence or shortly thereafter is directly related to the risk of death from cancer and heart disease at an early age. Inflammation is also believed to cause cancer and hardening of the arteries. This research showed that by identifying the silt present in the blood at an early age, one can find out about the danger of diseases beforehand. Presently, Dr. can find out about the death of a human being only one year ago. This research published in JAMA Pediatrics has been done only on men and hence it cannot be mentioned above for women.

What does the research say

A blood test that identifies inflammation in youth will predict the risk of heart disease and death 40 years in advance. This has been claimed in Halia's research. According to Sloan Kettering cancer researchers, measuring the silt present in the blood will allow the person to be diagnosed about 40 years ago. According to research, the swelling was identified in those who had more silt in their blood and whose blood was thicker. The risk of heart disease was found to be three times higher in such people.

Will alert patients

Through this easy blood test, doctors will be able to advise their patients to change a bad lifestyle and adopt a healthy lifestyle well in advance. In this test, it was seen how soon the red blood cells and erythrocytes present in the blood sit on the surface of the test tube. If these tubes settle down sooner than normal, there may be signs of inflammation.

Those with higher ESR have a higher risk of death

Research conducted on people between the ages of 18 and 20 found that those who had a higher erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) had a 36 percent higher risk of death than others. These people were monitored for 57 years. During this period, it was found that the risk of dying of cancer and heart disease increased by 78 percent and 54 percent respectively.

               The lead researcher, Dr. Elizabeth Kantor, said, "This test will suggest patients make lifestyle changes years ago so that someone serious can be avoided." The results showed that it is necessary to make the diagnosis of inflammation seriously at an early age. The research was carried out on 1,06,120 Swedish army personnel born between 1952 and 1956. He underwent several physical and mental examinations and his blood samples were also taken. He was supervised until 1 January 2010. During this period, 4,835 participants died, of which 1105 died of cancer, 874 due to heart diseases.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Visceral Fat

Vip technique
Fat in the intestines increases the risk of many diseases

Visceral Fat
Visceral Fat


Hidden fat increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease in women. Haliya research has claimed. Scientists have estimated that fat is present in more than 3,25,000 people, which surrounds the organs near the abdomen. This fat present near the organs inside the body increases the risk of type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart attack, especially in women.

Men less risk- 

According to research, women accumulate an extra one km of fat on their organs, increasing their risk of health problems by up to 7 times. At the same time, this risk is double in men. However, there is no clear information about this difference between women and men. Lead researcher Asa Johansson said, "We were surprised that fat was more at risk for women than men." The risk of diabetes increased by 7 times in an extra kilo of women.

                 In the US and UK, it accounts for a quarter of deaths from heart disease. Type-2 diabetes is also a serious problem and 500 million people worldwide are struggling with this problem.

Note: - 'Gene is also responsible'
In the second part of the experiment, scientists examined the human genome to identify genes affecting the development of adipose fat. They found that more than 200 gin is involved in this process. Researchers have claimed that large numbers are responsible for increasing fat. These things force people to eat more and live a more sedentary life.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

There are a large number of people who consider CVD i.e. diseases of the circulatory system and cardiovascular diseases as one, whereas they are not. According to the data, CVD cases have increased by 34% in the last 25 years. This has also increased the risk of untimely death and physical disability at an early age.     
                         Access to modern medical facilities is increasing continuously. Despite this, there is a steady increase in cases of many serious diseases, one of these is also Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). According to the World Health Organization, it is the leading cause of death in the whole world. According to a 2016 report presented by the Public Health Foundation of India, CVD cases in India have increased by 34 percent in the last 26 years.

What is 'CVD'

Our heart is a complex muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. A pearl pulse originates from the heart, called aorta, its branches carry blood and oxygen to various parts of the body. The cardiovascular or circulatory system (circulatory system) is made up of the heart, arteries, veins, and blood vessels. Any problem associated with these is called CVD. In this way CVD is a group of many diseases related to the heart and blood vessels, it has many forms, such as-

Coronary Heart Disease: It is a disease of the blood vessels. These tubes supply blood to the heart muscle.

Cerebrovascular disease: It is a disease of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain.

Peripheral arterial disease: disease of the blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: blood clots in the blood vessels of the foot, which can reach the heart and lungs.

Do not ignore these sign

➤ Feeling discomfort and heaviness in chest.
➤Shortness of breath with chest pain.
➤ Excessive sweating.
➤ Numbness of arms.
➤Speak tongue in speech.
➤Abnormal heartbeat.
➤ Chronic dizziness, fatigue or weakness.
➤ Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or stomach pain.
➤ Pain in the throat or jaws.
➤Swelling of paws, feet, and ankles.
➤ Sudden dizziness, trouble walking.
➤A weakness in the legs or feet.
➤Also pay attention to a long-standing cough, which brings white or pink phlegm.


➤ Stress increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 15–20%.
➤ Cholesterol increases and obesity adversely affect the cardiovascular system.
➤ Smoking increases the risk of CVD by 3-6 times by damaging the walls of the arteries.
➤ Non-vegetarian, fried items, fast food and eating too much salt and sugar also harm.
➤ Genetic cause, if there is a history of this disease in the family, then it is important to take precautions.
➤ Diabetes also increases the risk of CVD.

Remedies and Medicines

Treatment of the disease depends on how severe the disease is. How damaged the heart and circulation system is. Surgery is also done several times.

Angioplasty: In primary angioplasty, blood corrects blood flow by removing clots in the blood vessels. If necessary, advanced angioplasty is done, in which a stent is inserted to improve blood flow to the arteries.

Bypass Surgery: Bypass surgery is also performed to improve blood circulation, in which ducts are placed from one place to another by surgery.

Aortic valve replacement: If a heart valve is not working properly, surgery is necessary to replace it. This valve is removed and replaced with an artificial valve.

Heart Transplant: It involves removing a sick or damaged the heart and replacing it with a healthy heart. This process is used as the final treatment. It puts the heart of those who have been declared brain dead. It is necessary to transplant it within six hours after removing it from the donor's body. The probability of this surgery being successful is 30%.

Cardiac Pacemaker: Normal heartbeats are 60–90 minutes per minute. In people suffering from arrhythmias, the beats are normally reduced to 30–40. Many people stop beating for 3-4 seconds. The patient becomes dizzy and falls. The Cardiff pacemaker is a boon for such patients. Modern leadless pacemakers are much better than conventional pacemakers, with a success rate of 99%.

Clot Dissolving Drugs: Some drugs attempt to open the blockage of the arteries. This medicine should be given within 4-5 hours, after which it is not effective.

Stent retriever: This is a new technique of stroke treatment, in which blood clots are removed from the brain through thin catheters and wires and blocked blood vessels are opened. According to the National Stroke Association, be careful even after the stroke is cured, because the risk of getting hit again is very high.

Difference between CVD and heart disease

CVD includes all diseases related to the heart and circulatory system, so their scope is very wide. Cardio means heart and vascular ie blood arteries. CVD also includes BP and stroke. Heart diseases are diseases that directly affect the heart and its functioning. Most heart disease is a part of CVD, but some heart problems are caused by increased heart size or muscle breakdown, which are not included in CVD. Congenital malformations in children such as heart-piercing, enlargement of heart, or being small are also not CVD.

These measures will protect

➤ Avoid red meat, eat more fruits and vegetables.
➤ Bring mustard, olive or peanut oil to cooking.
➤ Do not use the remaining oil after frying again and again. This increases the amount of trans fat to fatal levels.
➤ Exercise and walk at least 30 minutes every day.
➤ Do not let the weight gain if it has increased then try to reduce it.
➤ Do not stress. Meditate or make a hobby, which can help keep you relaxed.
➤ Keep blood pressure under control.
➤ Reduce salt intake.
➤ Do not smoke and consume alcohol.
➤ If you have diabetes, control blood sugar levels.
➤ If anyone in the family has CVD, get regular checkups.
➤ Regularly check blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol and weight after 20. Those who are at the age of 40 should also undergo stress tests.

What the figures say

➤ According to the Journal of the American Heart Association, about 27% of adults in the world suffer from blood pressure.

➤ According to a study in China, the risk of heart diseases increases by 27% among those who watch TV for 4-5 hours daily.
➤ According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, published in 2016 by the WHA, cardiovascular disease is the cause of 22 percent of deaths in the 15-49 age group.
➤ According to the American Heart Association, the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) increases by 64% in people suffering from severe depression.
➤ According to the WHO, 1 crore 79 lakh people died of CVD diseases in 2016, accounting for 31% of the total global deaths. Out of the total deaths due to this, 85% were due to heart attack and stroke.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Cow's contribution to the country's economy

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Cow's contribution to the country's economy

Cow's contribution to the country's economy

➤ A large share of national income comes from livestock.
➤ Millions of Golan are obtained from cow urine i.e. insect control tribe.
➤ Animal husbandry can get 70 percent of the total power of the country.
➤ The value of only the measured manure made from cow dung of a bovine animal is 20 thousand rupees.
➤ Dynasty not only gives excellent milk, curd, buttermilk, butter, ghee but also gives cow urine based on medicinal and pest control as well as cow dung the source of good organic manure.
➤ Bulls are also obtained from the Indian bovine. Even today 70 percent of the agricultural work in the country is done by the bulls, bulls do more traffic than the Indian Railways.
➤ 32 Approximately 32 medicines are made from the urine and cow dung of the Indian bovine which is recognized by many state governments.
➤ Cultivation of India is dependent on our cow and cow farming is on Indian farming.
➤ cow urine contains copper that goes into the human body and turns into gold. Gold has antipyretic power.
➤16 types of useful minerals are found in cow dung.
➤ Filling cow dung in a horn of a dead animal and pressing it into the ground after some time, horn or molecule manure or pressing the body of a dead animal in the ground provides samadhi compost, then it is useful for many acres of land.
➤ Boil basil etc. in cow urine and mix it in several times water and make a good kit controller.
➤ The food of cow dung is the natural food of the earth, it increases the fertility of the soil.
➤ cow dung is a fertile food of the earth, due to this, the fertility power of the earth remains. This has been happening in India for thousands of years. The fertility of the earth has come down on the verge of becoming barren due to its use of pesticides.

State of the state in the field of animal husbandry and dairy

After agriculture, animal husbandry has special importance in the Indian economy. The situation in Uttar Pradesh is quite good in its case. Uttar Pradesh produces 796 lakh liters of milk per day. Of this, only 437 lakh liters of milk are marketable.

➥ 200 crore Kanha Gaushala destitute animal husbandry scheme

➥ 247.60 crores cow breeding and construction of cowshed
➥ For the construction of 104 crore veterinary hospitals
➥ 04 crore for Animal Services Center
➥ 04 crore mobile veterinary service
➥ 147.60 crore for the establishment of cow protection centers
➥ 07 crore National Animal Health and Disease Controller Program
➥ 50 lakh multipurpose mobile veterinary
➥ 825.89 crore dairy development project

 Milk unions, restructuring, expansion, animal breeding, and health programs-

➧ 56 crore to build a new dairy in Mathura
➧ 10 thousand units to be built under the Deen Dayal Small Dairy Scheme.
➧ 5 crore for various programs under milk policy

On average, a cow gives three-liter of milk daily

➭ On average, three to four and a half kilograms of milk is provided to cows and buffaloes in the state. The cows give milk at a rate of 2.59 kg per day and buffalo 4.4 kg per day.
➭ There are two crore cows and three crore buffaloes in the state.

Status of milk production and productivity in the state

 796 lakh liters of milk are produced daily in UP.
➭ 4 About 437 lakh liters is only sellable.
➭ 135 There is a demand of 135 lakh liters of milk daily in the urban areas of the state.
 Only 16 percent of it can complete the units organized in the form of packed milk.
➭ The remaining 83-84 percent portion is supplied by milk and local vendors in rural and urban areas.
➭ According to statistics, the average productivity of whole country milk is 4.76.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

History-Geography of Indus River System

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History-Geography of Indus River System

History-Geography of Indus River System


Origin: A stream called Sin-ka-Bab near Mansarovar in Tibet
Area11.2 lakh km area
Indus river system population300 million people

The treaty accounts for 4.4 billion cubic meters of water in rivers safe for Pakistan.

Tributaries of Indus River

1- Jhelum
Starting from Jammu and Kashmir Sheshnag, this 725 km long river flows parallel to Sima and meets Chenab.

2- Chenab

The 960 km long river starts from Himachal and joins the Indus River in Pakistan via Jammu and Kashmir.

3- Rabi

The 720 km long river flows out of Rohtang Pass-through Himachal, Jammu and Kashmir, and Punjab and joins the Chenab flowing from Pakistan.

4- Beas

The 470 km long river originates from Beas Kund in Rohtang and passes through Punjab (India) into the Sutlej River in Arki.

5- Sutlej

This river, originating from Mansarovar, sets the Sima line between India and Pakistan via Himachal to Punjab and then joins the Chenab river.

The scope of the Indus system spread to four countries

Pakistan         47%
India              39%
China              8%
Afghanistan    6%

(Area of Indus and tributaries)

Indus Valley Region in India

Many areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan are under the Indus Valley.

Know these facts

➤  90% of Pakistan's agriculture is dependent on the Indus. Pakistan has an area of 7,96,095 sq km.

➤  A total of 5,93,973 sq km of India falls in this area, of which about one lakh sq km is of Jammu and Kashmir.

Note: India name was from Indus river
          One of the largest rivers of Asia, the Indus River is called Indus in English, from which India got the name India. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished on the banks of this Indus River about 8 thousand years ago, the evidence of which is found in northeast Afghanistan, northwest of Pakistan and north India.

Monday, September 9, 2019

Scientists made a huge disclosure about the soul

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Research: Scientists also believed, the soul is immortal

Research: Scientists Also Believed, Soul is Immortal


This research of scientists is based on the quantum theory of physics. According to them, in the cells of the brain of the spirit conscious mind, micro-sources of energy remain in the form of molecules and sub-cells. Information is stored in these microscopic particles.

Notifications are not lost

According to research, despite the subtle energy particles go into the universe, the information contained in them is not destroyed. Plunk Institute in Munich is named after Max Plunk, a scientist who has proposed quantum theory.

 The recognition of the soul as being immortal is gaining support from scientists. Physics and Mathematics Two scientists have done medicine after long research that the soul never dies, only the body dies. After death, the soul goes back to the universe, but its underlying information is never destroyed.
                     Sir Roger Penrose, two professors of mathematics and physics at Oxford University and Dr. Stuart Hameroff, a physicist at the University of Arizona, have published six papers on the subject after nearly two decades of research. Recently on his research, America's famous science channel has made a documentary film which is going to be published soon.

The human brain is a computer

Researchers say that the human brain is like a biological computer. The program of this biological computer is the consciousness or soul which operates through a quantum computer inside the brain. A quantum computer refers to microscopic tubules located in brain cells made of protein-based molecules. These microscopic sources of energy combined with a large number of molecules to form a quantum state that is actually consciousness or spirit.

The soul dissolves in the universe 

According to scientists, when a person begins to die mentally, then these microscopic tubes start losing the quantum state. The microscopic energy particles copy from the brain tubes and go into the universe. Sometimes a person wakes up dying, then these particles return to the microscopic tubes.

Sunday, September 8, 2019

That Countries Who Failed To Reach The Moon

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America, Russia also received many failures on the moon

That Countries Who Failed To Reach The Moon


An attempt to touch the moon through Chandrayaan-2 remained incomplete late on Friday. ISRO lost contact with 'Lander Vikram' just 2 km before the 'soft landing' on the moon. According to Nasha, only 60 percent of the various lunar missions conducted in the last 6 decades have been able to achieve their goal. Countries like America, Russia have also tried to set foot on the moon.

Soviet Union / Russia

(1)  Sputnik-25

  • Launch Date: January 4, 1963
  • Result: Launch successful, but the vehicle could not get out of orbit due to rocket malfunction.

(2)  Luna E-6 Number-3

  • Launch Date: 3 February 1963
  • Result: Initiative vehicle abandoned with the intention of 'soft landing' on the moon, contact was broken within a few hours before launch.

(3)  Luna-4

  • Launch Date - April 2, 1963
  • Result: Missed 8,336 km in an attempt for 'soft landing', established as a satellite in Earth's orbit on 5 April.

(4)  Luna E-6 Number-6

  • Launch Date - March 21, 1964
  • Result: The propellant valve could not fully open due to the breaking of a rod in the rocket, the vehicle was stopped before reaching the earth's orbit.

(5)  Cosmos-60

  • Launch Date: March 12, 1965
  • Result: Soviet Union's sixth attempt of 'soft landing' failed due to power supply in the control system, the vehicle could not orbit the earth.

(6)  Luna E-60 Number-8

  • Launch Date: April 10, 1965
  • Result: During the third phase of flight, the nitrogen pipeline in the oxidizer tank was damaged, the engine stalled due to gas supply failure.

(7)  Luna-5

  • Launch Date: May 9, 1965
  • The result: engine disturbances due to a lapse from ground control, 'Luna-5' vehicle dropped near the 'Copernicus Crater' of the Moon on 12 May.

(8)  Luna-6

  • Launch Date: June 8, 1965
  • Result: On June 11, the vehicle flew from a distance of 1.6 lakh km.

(9)  Luna-7

  • Launch Date: October 4, 1965
  • Result: RetroRocket closed in an attempt to reduce the speed before landing, the vehicle dropped on October 7

(10)  Luna-8

  • Launch Date: 3 December 1965
  • The result: the vehicle crashed into the surface of the 'soft landing' on Chadrama.

(11)  Luna-18

  • Launch Date: December 2, 1971
  • Result: On September 11, he hit the hills in an attempt to land.


(1)  Surveyor-2

  • Launch Date: September 20, 1966
  • The result: an attempt to change the orbit just 130 km from the lunar surface was reversed, the vehicle dropped near 'Copernicus Crater'.

(2)  Surveyor-4

  • Launch Date: July 14, 1967
  • Result: Two-and-a-half minutes before landing on the Moon, broken contact with a possible explosion in the retrorocket, the vehicle is predicted to fall near 'sinus medi'.



  • Launch Date: 22 February 2019
  • Result: entered the moon's orbit on April 4, the brake system failed on April 11, the vehicle crashed 10 kilometers from the surface.

The journey

  •  In 1959, 'Luna-2' of the then Soviet Union became the world's first vehicle to touch the surface of the moon.
  •  'Luna-9' of the Soviet Union in 1966 showed 'soft landing' success on the moon.

Failure rate

  • 109 lunar missions were conducted in the past 6 decades
  •  61 succeed in achieving the target set
  •  48 campaigns had to face failure

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Battle of Panipat

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Battle of Panipat

Battle of Panipat
Battle of Panipat


After his early campaigns took control of Punjab, Babur wanted to take over Delhi, where Ibrahim, the Lodi dynasty ruled at that time. Ibrahim was the owner of a large army, while there were only 12 thousand soldiers under Babur, but due to the sympathy of Babar by many Indian chieftains, he dared to attack Delhi. Babur was accompanied by his son Humayun. Babur proceeded towards Delhi via Sirhind and Ambala. When Ibrahim Lodi came to know about this, he too traveled from Delhi to confront Babur with a powerful army. The two armies stood face to face in the Panipat plain.

                 Finally, on April 19, 1526 AD, Babur attacked the Lodi-Sena at night, but that attack failed. Then a decisive war took place on 21 April. Ibrahim Lodi was killed in this war along with thousands of his comrades.

        After defeating Ibrahim in the battle of Panipat, Babur sent Humayun and Khwaja to control Agra. He sent another party to take over Delhi. In this way, Delhi and Agra became his authority and on 26 April 1526 AD, the name of his name was read in Delhi. Thus Mughal rule was established in India.

Results of the Battle of Panipat

The battle of Panipat in 1526 AD was decisive. This led to the emergence of a new era in Indian history. Thus the Sultanate era ended and the Mughal era was established.

The battle of Panipat had the following major consequences:

(1) Fall of Lodi dynasty- 
The Lodi-dynastic rule collapsed with Ibrahim's death in the Battle of Panipat. Highlighting the importance of this war, Dr. Ishwariya Prasad has written. "The empire of Delhi came into the hands of Babur only after the Battle of Panipat." With this, the power of the Lodi-dynasty was shattered and the power of India went to the Chugtai Turks. "With the fall of the Lodi-dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate also fell. Thus the permanent rule of the same dynasty was established in India.

(2) Establishment of Mughal rule- 
The war of Panipat brought the empire of Delhi into Babur's hands. Thus Babur established Mughal rule in India in 1526 AD.

(3) India's immense loss- 
In the battle of Panipat Babur received immense wealth which was distributed among his soldiers and the people of Kabul.

(4) The disappointment of Rajputs- It became clear that the Rajputs would now face Babur as Babur was a highly ambitious ruler.

Causes of the Defeat of Ibrahim and Victory of Babur

The victory of Babur in the Battle of Panipat and the defeat of Ibrahim had many reasons, the main of which were the following:

(1) Babur's personality- Babur was a very ambitious man with a lot of confidence. Babur was involved in wars since childhood, so he had the experience of wars and war operations. In contrast, Ibrahim Lodi did not have a special experience. Therefore, despite being powerful, he was easily defeated.

(2) Babar's worthy commander- Babar himself was a qualified general, his other commanders were also qualified. Lodi's army was defeated when Babur used the Tulugma method.

(3) Battle skills of the Mughal army - Mughal soldiers knew that India is a rich country, on which they were likely to get immense wealth. Therefore, greed for wealth increased their enthusiasm more. On the contrary, the soldiers of Lodi were neither qualified nor experienced as Mughal soldiers and lacked enthusiasm due to their lack of individuality.

(4) Use of gunpowder- Babur also won in this war due to having cannons.

(5) Babur's skillful military operations and arraying - Babur was highly skilled in military operations and arraying. Babur's army was small but highly dynamic. She could also attack quickly and flee under adverse circumstances. In contrast, Ibrahim's army had neither agility nor capability to attack. Ibrahim put forward the celebrity army, who turned to flee when the cannons fired and went on trampling his own army.

Problems Faced by Babur After the Battle of Panipat

After winning this war Babur faced the following problems, some of which are as follows:

(1) Due to Babur's occupation of Delhi, citizens were running away from the city. Babar assured the people that those who accept his subordination will not be tortured in any way.
(2) Many Afghan chieftains had established independent power in the meantime. Babar announced that the Afghan chiefs would accept his suzerainty, they would be given big jagirs. Thus many Afghans accepted his suzerainty and forced some to accept his suzerainty through power.
(3) Babur's soldiers had been out for a long time, so he was now trying to return to Kabul. Babur prepared him to return to India.
(4) The first problem before Babur was that of Rajputs. The leader of the Rajputs, Mewar, was a ruler of Rana Sanga (Rana Sangram Singh). Rana Sanga was very powerful and wanted to take over Delhi. Therefore, it became necessary to have a conflict between Rana and Babur

Friday, September 6, 2019

Mughal Administration

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Judicial Administration of the Mughals

Mughal Administration
Mughal Administration

The following courts used to be in the Mughal period

(1) Emperor's court- In the Mughal period, the emperor was the head of justice. The emperor used to do justice in the general court on one day of the week i.e. on Wednesday. The last court of appeal used to be the Emperor's Court.

(2) Pradhan Qazi's court- After the Emperor's court, there was the court of Pradhan Qazi. Pradhan Qazi used to do justice in his court according to the rules of Islam.

(3) Provincial courts- There was a Qazi court in the capital of each province.

(4) Town courts- Like every province, there was a Kazi in each town. The cases of villages, towns, and cities were heard by the panchayats.

Crime and Punishment Legislation

According to Islamic theology, there were three types of crimes-

(1) divine offense
(2) State Crime
(3) personal offense

There were 4 types of punishment in the Mughal period-

(1) Extent- This punishment was given for divine offense. This punishment was mainly for adultery, drinking, stealing, robbery, murder, and anti-religious acts.

(2) Tajir- Tajir punishment was given to improve the offender. The punishment of the criminals inside the Tajir depended on the will of the judge.

(3) Kissas (revenge)- Kissas were given for punishment, murder or deep injury.

(4) Tasha here (Public Condemnation)- This law was for Hindus.

Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Atmosphere And Types of Atmosphere

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Atmosphere And Types of Atmosphere

Introduction to Atmosphere

The gaseous mantle that extends thousands of kilometers in height around the Earth is called the atmosphere. According to Strahler, although 97% of the atmosphere is confined to a height of 29 km, the maximum upper limit is stated to be 10 thousand km. The atmosphere allows small-scale radiation to come to the Earth's surface, like a glasshouse but maintains a certain temperature on the Earth by absorbing long waves reflected from the Earth. This is not possible in the absence of an atmosphere. The average temperature of the Earth is 15 ° C. Oxygen gas is found up to 100 km in the atmosphere but mainly in a rare state above 16 km. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is found up to a height of 20 km. Apart from gases, atmospheres, smoke particles, dust particles, salt particles are found in different proportions in the atmosphere. The color of the sky is visible only due to blue dust particles because the color of the sky appears blue due to the scattering of rays coming from the sun.

Structure of the atmosphere

Concentric layers of air are found in the atmosphere which is completely different from each other in terms of density and temperature. The atmosphere is divided into the following layers-

1- Troposphere It is the lowest and condensed layer of the atmosphere. In which 75% of the total air is found in this division. The average elevation of this layer is believed to be 14 km. This layer is found up to 18 km at the equator and 9 km at the poles. In this division all the seasonal activities like cloud, rain, storm, cyclone, etc. in this division height decrease with temperature is 165 m / 1 ° C.

2- Stratosphere: The stratosphere is 50 km in height. Ozone (O3) layer up to the height of 20-35 km is found in the upper part of the same division. Hence it is called ozone circle or life-saving armor. Halogenated gases such as chloro-fluoro carbon (CFC) have caused significant damage to this system. Loss of the ozone layer results in diseases such as skin cancer and cataracts from ultraviolet rays. Ozone layer erosion is first detected by 16Sep. In 1985 Joseph Forman planted the continent of Antarctica. The thickness of the ozone layer is measured by the Dobson unit.

3- Mesosphere: Its altitude is found to be between 50–80 km. Temperature decrease with height is also measured in this division.

4- IonosphereIt is also known as the thermosphere. The height of this division is found to be between 80–640 km. The temperature in this circle rises rapidly and the temperature at the upper Sima rises to 1000 ° C. Radio waves transmitted from Earth reflect back from this system and return to Earth. The winds of this mantle are heavily charged. Therefore, the particles of air in this division start glowing due to the electric immersion. This is the reason why artificial satellites are placed in this division.

5- ExosphereThe height of this circle is known to be 680 to 1000 km. The lightest gases in this circle are found to be helium and hydrogen. The temperature of this circle is 5860 ° C.

Gases                      Percentage
Nitrogen                       78.3%
Oxygen                      20.24%
Argon                          0.93%
Carbon dioxide           0.03%
Nian                          0.018%
Helium                    0.0005%
Ozone                    0.00006%