Sunday, March 22, 2020

What is Glaucoma??? Symptoms, Reason, and Treatments

Do you also have glaucoma? If yes, then in this article today I will tell you that if you have glaucoma, what are its symptoms, reason, and treatments.

Glaucoma: Increasing risk of vision





What is Glaucoma??? Types, Symptoms, and Treatments

Introduction

Glaucoma ie black cataract is the leading cause of blindness. It is an incurable disease, which increases slowly. Timely treatment can prevent this glaucoma from growing.
                   According to health organizations, about 15% of blindness cases worldwide are associated with glaucoma. Also, 90% of its cases are delayed by treatment. It is estimated that by the end of the current decade, cases of eye problems will increase by about 33%. According to the Glaucoma Foundation, by the end of 2020, 12 million people may lose their eyesight due to glaucoma. In most cases, there is no symptom of glaucoma, which is why it is also called silent bleeding disease. If timely treatment is not given, the problem of glaucoma becomes increasingly serious. Initially, the light of the eyes slowly starts to decrease and finally stops appearing.

Black cataract

Glaucoma, also known as black cataract, is a problem associated with the eyes, which damages the neural optic nerve that connects the eyes to the brain. In most cases, the pressure is higher than normal in the eyes, this condition is called ocular hypertension. But this problem can also be caused by intraocular pressure. In the most common form of glaucoma, primary open-angle glaucoma, flu pressure in the eye increases. The fiber of the optic nerve begins to be destroyed due to increasing pressure, causing it to become damaged. Advanced glaucoma can cause blindness.

This causes increased glaucoma

The exact cause of cataracts is not yet known. Some factors increase the risk of glaucoma, such as;
  1. Excessive eye pressure, which occurs in people over 60 years of age
  2. Genetic reasons
  3. Conditions like diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia
  4. Eye problems, such as; myopia
  5. Preoperative eye surgery
  6. Long-term use of drugs containing corticosteroids,
  7. Prolonged use of eye drops
  8. Severe swelling and pain in the eyes

Glaucoma is a serious problem

Glaucoma is the second most prominent cause of blindness. There is no treatment for glaucoma. So the damage that has been done to the eyes cannot be cured with medicines and surgery, only more damage can be prevented. From newborn to elderly, anyone can have glaucoma. Many children are born with glaucoma. Usually, there are no symptoms of glaucoma. Even after increasing pressure in the eyes, no symptoms are directly visible. Most people are diagnosed with glaucoma when the eyesight becomes weak.

Types of glaucoma

There are 4 types of glaucoma

1- Chronic glaucoma

In chronic glaucoma, the ducts that carry fluid out of the eyes become blocked, causing the fluid to not flow out from the eyes in a reasonable amount, and pressure or intraocular pressure increases in the eyes. Since the pressure in the eyes increases very slowly, there is no pain, but the eyesight decreases continuously. This is called open-angle glaucoma.

2- Acute glaucoma

In acute glaucoma, the tubes that drain fluid from the eyes suddenly close completely, causing rapid pressure in the eyes. When the flow stops completely then the material gets collected in the large amounts. In such a situation, there may be severe pain. If treatment is not done in time, then the eyesight can go permanently. It is also called closed-angle glaucoma or narrow-angle glaucoma.

3- Secondary and Development Glaucoma

When there is pressure on the eyes due to any other medical condition, it is called secondary glaucoma. The constant increase in pressure causes damage to the optic nerve, which causes black cataracts.

4- Congenital glaucoma

This is called congenital black cataract. This problem can be caused by hereditary defects or abnormal development in pregnancy. This involves damage to the optic nerve due to the jamming of the tubes draining fluid from the eyes or any other medical problem. Which later takes the form of glaucoma.

Symptoms of glaucoma

  1. Severe pain in eyes and head
  2. Nausea and vomiting
  3. Reddening of eyes 
  4. Colored rings around the lights

Get regular checkup after age 40

After 40, the risk of developing glaucoma increases. After this age, the eyesight should be checked every 2 years. Most people think that the weakening of eyesight is a common thing with aging, that is why they do not take this latter seriously. But maybe your eyesight is due to glaucoma.

How is glaucoma diagnosed

How is glaucoma diagnosed

If you have glaucoma then the following tests can be done-

1- Tonometry testing

In the test, the eye is numb by first applying an eye drop. Then the internal pressure of the eyes is measured with a tonometer device.

2- Ophthalmoscopy test

In this, the actual position of the optic nerve is ascertained. Eye drops are applied to spread the pupil of the eye so that the size and color of the optic nerve can be properly examined.

3- Perimetry testing

This test shows how much vision has been damaged by black cataract.

4- Gonioscopy test

This helps determine whether the angle between the cornea and the iris is open and wide or narrow and closed.

5- Circuitry test

In this, the thickness of the cornea is measured from the pachymeter. This is an easy and painless method.

Treatment of glaucoma

Treatment of glaucoma

Damage from glaucoma cannot be cured, but it can be prevented from growing further. Glaucoma can be treated by reducing excess eye pressure. Depending on the patient's condition, doctors choose treatment, including eye drops, oral medications, laser treatment, and surgery. Surgery options include laser surgery and various surgical procedures. The purpose of surgery can be to reduce pressure by improving the fluid drainer in the eye.
         Here are some surgeries available to correct glaucoma. If you  have glaucoma, the doctor may ask you to have the following surgeries, such as;

1- Laser trabeculoplasty

It helps in removing fluid from the eyes. In many cases, doctors also give medicines after this treatment. Before doing this, eye drops are applied to numb the eyes. A high-intensity beam of light is used in it.

2- Glaucoma filtering surgery

The traditional surgery used in glaucoma is called filtering surgery. This is done when drugs and laser surgery are not successful. Before surgery, a small injection is made to numb the areas around the eyes. A small part of the tissue is removed to create a new path to take out the fluid. Traditional surgery helps to reduce eye pressure by 60–80%.

3- The Drainage tube

A small tube shunt is inserted into it to remove excess fluid.

4- Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery

It is a state-of-the-art technology called MIGS. The wound caused by this surgery also heals quickly.

Prevention of glaucoma

It is not possible to prevent black cataract, but some measures can reduce the risk of glaucoma, such as;
  1. Get your eyes checked regularly.
  2. Workout daily so that intraocular pressure can be controlled.
  3. Take special care of eye protection. Severe eye injury can also cause glaucoma.
  4. If you have glaucoma or eye problems in your family, talk to your doctor about this.
  5. Use eye drops regularly.

Finally 

I hope you liked this article. Through this article, you will get to know some new things about glaucoma, its causes, treatment, surgery, etc. If you still feeling that something is missing, you can comment below, I will answer it. Thank you for reading the article.

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